Latest 0.3.0
Homepage https://github.com/zradke/ZCREasyBake
License MIT
Platforms ios 5.1, osx 10.7, requires ARC
Authors

Build Status for Master on master

Build Status for Develop on develop

A lightweight immutable model framework disguised by friendly food metaphors.

===

Equipment

To use ZCREasyBake, your project should have a minimum deployment target of iOS 6.0+ or OSX 10.8+ and be running with ARC. However, this project is only unit tested on iOS 7.0+ and OSX 10.9+.

Preparing your kitchen

ZCREasyBake can be installed a variety of ways depending on your preference:

  • Drag-n-drop files from the Classes folder into your project.
  • Add pod "ZCREasyBake" to your Podfile for Cocoapods.

However you get the framework into your project, you can import the main header where needed:

#import <ZCREasyBake/ZCREasyBake.h> // Or #import "ZCREasyBake.h"

Terms

Throughout the ZCREasyBake project, you’ll encounter some jargon:

  • Model: A container for application data that is reusable and serializable. Think of this as a baked good.
  • Property: An Objective-C property which controls access to a model’s underlying data. ZCREasyBake prefers readonly properties when they expose a model’s underlying application data.
  • Identifier: An arbitrary object which conforms to the NSObject and NSCopying protocols that can uniquely identify a model across instances.
  • Ingredients: The raw data that makes up a model, represented as an NSDictionary or NSArray. This data is typically produced by an external service, such as a web API, and can be processed into models after some work.
  • Ingredient path: The steps to traverse an ingredient tree of dictionaries and/or arrays to access an ingredient value.
  • Recipe: Instructions for preparing ingredients for baking into a model, represented as a ZCREasyRecipe. Recipes let us decouple ingredient sources from their final model representations. Recipes are usually model and ingredient-source dependent, but otherwise reusable.

===

Working in the kitchen

Defining a new model

Start by defining your model as a subclass of ZCREasyDough:

@interface User : ZCREasyDough
@property (strong, readonly) NSString *name;
@property (assign, readonly) NSUInteger unreadMessages;
@property (strong, readonly) NSDate *updatedAt;
@end

Note that the properties are defined as readonly so the instance is effectively immutable after creation!

Identify ingredient sources

Your models will need to be populated with ingredients from an ingredient source. For example, our User model defined above can be backed by a web service that returns JSON like so:

{
    "server_id": "1209-3r47-4482-9rj4-93iu-324s",
    "name": "Zach Radke",
    "unread_messages": 10,
    "updated_at": "2014-04-19T19:32:05Z"
}

Whatever the ingredient source, the ingredients must be either an NSDictionary or NSArray before they can be processed.

Defining a recipe

To process raw ingredients into a model, a ZCREasyRecipe is used. These recipes are usually model and ingredient-source dependent. For example, we would create a single recipe for the User model and JSON ingredient source defined above.

All recipes begin with an NSDictionary mapping, which is required. The keys are property keys of the model to populate, and the values are the corresponding ingredient paths from the ingredient-source.

NSDictionary *mapping = @{@"name": @"name",
                          @"unreadMessages": @"unread_messages",
                          @"updatedAt": @"updated_at"};

The ingredient path is represented as a string, but may use dot notation to indicate a dictionary-key traversal, or the form [<index>] to indicate an array-index traversal. For example:

// The mapping…
NSDictionary *mapping = @{@"key": @"values[0].key"};

// Which corresponds to this structure…
NSDictionary *ingredientSource = @{@"values": @[@{@"key": @"fooBar"}]};

// Would produce these processed ingredients…
NSDictionary *processedIngredients = @{@"key": @"fooBar"};

Recipes may also optionally provide a dictionary of transformers to use for processing the raw ingredients into different objects. As with the ingredient mapping, the keys are property keys on the model which should be transformed. The values are NSValueTransformer instances or NSStrings. If strings are used, they must be registered to value transformers.

// NSValueTransformer+DefaultTransformers.h
// Assume we have created the DateTransformer class elsewhere...
DateTransformer *dateTransformer = [[DateTransformer alloc] initWithDateFormat:@"yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH-mm-ss'Z'"];
[NSValueTransformer setValueTransformer:dateTransformer forName:@"DateTransformer"];

// ...
NSDictionary *transformers = @{@"updatedAt": @"DateTransformer"};

Finally, a recipe may have a name. This is useful for debugging purposes, but also for storing and reusing recipes in ZCREasyRecipeBox instances.

ZCREasyRecipe *userJSONRecipe = [ZCREasyRecipe makeWith:^(id<ZCREasyRecipeMaker maker) {
    [maker setIngredientMapping:mapping];
    [maker setIngredientTransformers:transformers];
    [maker setName:@"UserJSONRecipe"];
}];
[[ZCREasyRecipeBox defaultBox] addRecipe:userJSONRecipe error:NULL];

Since recipes are typically model dependent, you can also provide class methods on the model for even easier recipe access.

// User.m
+ (ZCREasyRecipe *)JSONRecipe {
    return [[ZCREasyRecipeBox defaultBox] recipeWithName:@"UserJSONRecipe"];
}

ZCREasyRecipe and ZCREasyRecipeBox have many utilities that make generating and validating recipes much easier. Check their headers for more information.

Baking a new instance

Your model will inherit the designated initializers from ZCREasyDough:

- (instancetype)initWithIdentifier:(id<NSObject,NSCopying>)identifier
                       ingredients:(id)ingredients
                            recipe:(ZCREasyRecipe *)recipe
                             error:(NSError **)error;
+ (instancetype)makeWith:(void (^)(id<ZCREasyBaker> baker))constructionBlock;

To create an instance you’ll need an identifier, some ingredients, and a recipe:

NSDictionary *ingredients = @{@"server_id": @"1209-3r47-4482-9rj4-93iu-324s"
                              @"name": @"Zach Radke"
                              @"unread_messages": @10,
                              @"updated_at": @"2014-04-19T19:32:05Z"};
User *user = [User prepareWith:^(id<ZCREasyChef> chef) {
    [chef setIdentifier:ingredients[@"server_id"]];
    [chef setIngredients:ingredients];
    [chef setRecipe:[User JSONRecipe]];
}];

Updating an instance

When you want to update an instance, simply use the update method on it, passing the new ingredients and the recipe to generate a new instance:

NSDictionary *ingredients = @{@"name": @"Zachary Radke"};
User *updatedUser = [user updateWithIngredients:ingredients
                                         recipe:[User JSONRecipe]
                                          error:NULL];

The updated instance will share the same unique identifier as it’s parent, and will generate notifications that can be observed:

[[NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter] addObserver:self
                                         selector:@selector(userUpdated:)
                                             name:[User updateNotificationName]
                                           object:nil];

For a more generic notification, the ZCREasyDoughUpdatedNotification can be observed, which will be triggered for updates to all ZCREasyDough subclasses. Notifications will be posted from the original instance. However, since equality isn’t pointer specific (more on that in the next section), it’s advisable to observe the notification without an object, and filter the notifications based on the user-info.

The user-info of these notifications will contain the ZCREasyDoughIdentifierKey, which points to the unique identifier of the updated instance, and ZCREasyDoughUpdatedDoughKey which points to the updated instance.

Comparing instances and ingredients

Equality between ZCREasyDough subclasses is determined by the identifier used when initializing an instance. This means that calls to isEqual: will return YES between a model and an updated model:

[user isEqual:updatedUser]; // YES
(user == updatedUser); // NO

A subclass can also report whether it already contains given ingredients with a given recipe:

NSDictionary *ingredients = @{@"name": @"Zachary Radke"};
[user isEqualToIngredients:ingredients withRecipe:[User JSONRecipe] error:NULL]; // NO
[updatedUser isEqualToIngredients:ingredients withRecipe:[User JSONRecipe] error:NULL]; // YES

Decomposing an instance

From ingredients it was made and to ingredients it shall return! A model can be decomposed using a given recipe:

NSDictionary *ingredients = [updatedUser decomposeWithRecipe:[User JSONRecipe] error:NULL];

The resulting type will either be an NSDictionary or an NSArray depending on what the recipe’s mapping suggests the root object is.

If the recipe supplies value transformers, they will be applied to the model’s value if the transformer supports reverse transformations.

[DateTransformer allowsReverseTransformation]; // YES
ingredients[@"updated_at"]; // @"2014-04-19T19:32:05Z"

Tips

Running into difficulties with your models? Maybe these tips can help:

Recipes

  • Ingredient mapping keys must be settable on the receiving model via setValue:forKey:.
  • Ingredient paths must be consistent in their inferred objects. For example:
// Invalid mapping since the root is suggested to be a dictionary and array
NSDictionary *invalidMapping = @{@"key1": @"key_1",
                                 @"key2": @"[0]"};

// Invalid mapping since "key" points to both a dictionary and array
NSDictionary *alsoInvalid = @{@"key1": @"key[0]",
                              @"key2": @"key.two"};
  • Ingredient keys do not all need to be represented in a recipe.
  • Model property names do not all need to be represented in a recipe.
  • If ingredient transformers are provided, the keys must be present in the ingredient mapping.
  • NSNull values are converted to nil for transformers.
  • If a transformer returns nil it will be converted to NSNull in the processed ingredients.
  • A recipe box can only hold one recipe per name. Adding another recipe with the same name will fail.

Models

  • NSNull ingredient values are converted to nil.
  • After initialization, readonly properties cannot be set via setValue:forKey:. Attempts to do so will raise a ZCREasyDoughExceptionAlreadyBaked exception.
  • When updateWithIngredients:recipe:error is called with ingredients that are already part of the model, no notifications will be posted, and the same object will be returned rather than a new instance.
  • Updating a model will post a notification from the original model, with the updated model in the user info. However, because equality is not determined by pointers, you should typically observe the notification without specifying an object, and rely on the user info to provide context.
  • Most of the methods have an optional error pointer parameter. If you aren’t receiving the expected output, make sure you’re passing something in there to help you debug what’s happening!
  • The ZCREasyDough class introspects your model’s properties at runtime and caches them, so avoid dynamically creating properties on your model class at runtime.

Latest podspec

{
    "name": "ZCREasyBake",
    "version": "0.3.0",
    "summary": "Makes baking immutable models as easy as pie!",
    "homepage": "https://github.com/zradke/ZCREasyBake",
    "license": "MIT",
    "authors": {
        "Zach Radke": "[email protected]"
    },
    "platforms": {
        "ios": "5.1",
        "osx": "10.7"
    },
    "source": {
        "git": "https://github.com/zradke/ZCREasyBake.git",
        "tag": "0.3.0"
    },
    "source_files": "Classes",
    "requires_arc": true
}

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