Latest 0.2
License MIT
Platforms ios 9.0
Dependencies FlexibleDiff

Bento 🍱 弁当

is a single-portion take-out or home-packed meal common in Japanese cuisine. A traditional bento holds rice or noodles, fish or meat, with pickled and cooked vegetables, in a box.

Bento is a Swift library for building component-based interfaces on top of UITableView.

  • Declarative: provides a painless approach for building UITableView interfaces
  • Diffing: reloads your UI with beautiful animations when your data changes
  • Component-based: Design reusable components and share your custom UI across multiple screens of your app

In our experience it makes UI-related code easier to build and maintain. Our aim is to make the UI a function of state (i.e: UI = f(state)), which makes Bento a perfect fit for Reactive Programming.

Content 📋

What’s it like? 🧐

When building a Box, all you need to care about are Sectionss and Nodes.

let box = Box<SectionId, RowId>.empty
                |-+ Section(id: SectionId.user,
                            header: EmptySpaceComponent(height: 24, color: .clear))
                |---+ RowId.user <> IconTitleDetailsComponent(icon: image, title:
                |-+ Section(id: SectionId.consultantDate,
                            header: EmptySpaceComponent(height: 24, color: .clear))
                |---+ RowId.loading <> LoadingIndicatorComponent(isLoading: true)


How does it work? 🤔

Box 📦

Box is a fundamental component of the library, essentially a virtual representation of the UITableView content. It has two generic parameters – SectionId and RowId – which are unique identifiers for Section<SectionId, RowId> and Node<RowId>, used by the diffing engine to perform animated changes of the UITableView content.

Sections and Nodes 🏗

Sections and Nodes are building blocks of a Box:

  • Section is an abstraction of UITableView‘s section which defines whether a header or footer should be shown.
  • Node is an abstraction of UITableView‘s row which defines how the data is rendered.
struct Section<SectionId: Hashable, RowId: Hashable> {
    let id: SectionId
    let header: AnyRenderable?
    let footer: AnyRenderable?
    let rows: [Node<RowId>]

public struct Node<Identifier: Hashable> {
    let id: Identifier
    let component: AnyRenderable

Identity 🎫

Identity, one of the key concepts, is used by the diffing algorithm to perform changes.

For general business concerns, full inequality of two instances does not necessarily mean inequality in terms of identity — it just means the data being held has changed if the identity of both instances is the same.

(More info here.)

SectionId and RowId define the identity of Section and Row, respectively.

Renderable 🖼

Renderable is similar to React‘s Components. It’s an abstraction of the real UITableViewCell that is going to be displayed. The idea is to make it possible to create small independent components that can be reused across many parts of your app.

public protocol Renderable: class {
    associatedtype View: UIView

    func render(in view: View)

class IconTextComponent: Renderable {
    private let title: String
    private let image: UIImage

    init(image: UIImage,
         title: String) {
        self.image = image
        self.title = title

    func render(in view: IconTextCell) {
        view.titleLabel.text = title
        view.iconView.image = image

Bento’s arithmetics 💡

There are several custom operators that provide syntax sugar to make it easier to build Bentos:

precedencegroup ComposingPrecedence {
    associativity: left
    higherThan: NodeConcatenationPrecedence

precedencegroup NodeConcatenationPrecedence {
    associativity: left
    higherThan: SectionConcatenationPrecedence

precedencegroup SectionConcatenationPrecedence {
    associativity: left
    higherThan: AdditionPrecedence

infix operator <>: ComposingPrecedence
infix operator |-+: SectionConcatenationPrecedence
infix operator |--+: NodeConcatenationPrecedence

let bento = Box.empty // 3
    |-+ Section() // 2
    |---+ <> Component() // 1

As you can see, <> has a ComposingPrecedence, |---+ has a NodeConcatenationPrecedence, which is higher then |-+, SectionConcatenationPrecedence, which means that Nodes will be computed first. The order of the expression above is:

  1. <> Component() => Node
  2. Section() |---+ Node() => Section
  3. Box() |-+ Section() => Box

Examples 😎

Sections Appointment Movies
Bento Bento Bento

Installation 💾

  • Cocoapods
target 'MyApp' do
    pod 'Bento'
  • Carthage
github "Babylonpartners/Bento"

Development Installation 🛠

If you want to clone the repo for contributing or for running the example app you will need to install its dependencies which are stored as git submodules:

git submodule update --init --recursive

Or, if you have Carthage installed, you can use it to do the same thing:

carthage checkout

State of the project 🤷‍♂️

Feature Status
Carthage Support
Free functions as alternative to the operators

Contributing ✍️

Contributions are very welcome and highly appreciated! ❤️ Here’s how to do it:

  • If you have any questions feel free to create an issue with a question label;
  • If you have a feature request you can create an issue with a Feature request label;
  • If you found a bug feel free to create an issue with a bug label or open a PR with a fix.

Latest podspec

    "name": "Bento",
    "version": "0.2",
    "summary": "Component based abstraction on top of UITableView and UICollectionView",
    "description": "Component-based abstraction on top of UITableView and UICollectionView.nProvides a declarative way to render data in UITableView and UICollectionView",
    "homepage": "",
    "license": {
        "type": "MIT",
        "file": "LICENSE"
    "authors": {
        "Babylon iOS": "[email protected]"
    "platforms": {
        "ios": "9.0"
    "source": {
        "git": "",
        "tag": "0.2"
    "source_files": [
    "dependencies": {
        "FlexibleDiff": [
            "= 0.0.5"

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