Latest2.0.1
Homepagehttps://github.com/Anvics/Amber
LicenseMIT
Platformsios 9.0
DependenciesBond
FrameworksUIKit
Authors

Amber

Amber
Version
License
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Overview

Amber is flexible architecture based on Elm & Flux ideas and developed specifically for iOS. It separetes components of a module into six parts:

State: is plain struct responsible for holding all data based on which interface is drawn.

Actions: are events that can happen in module: button press, data loaded, etc.

Reducer: is class responsible for processing Actions and for initial setup.

Transitions: are types of transitions that can happen in module.

Router: is class responsible for processing Transitions

Store: holds reference to Reducer, Router and current State.

Controller: is plain mapping of the state into the user interface. It subscribes to current state and updates view accordingly to the new state. It also responsible for sending Actions and Transitions to the Store.

Benefits

  • makes application behavior more predictable;

  • code stays good structured as your application grows;

  • allow you to intercept all application events;

  • easier to refactor and modify your code.

Schema

Amber

In depth overview

State

State is a struct that stores all data needed for your module. For example:

struct FeedState: AmberState {
    var description: String {
        return "isLoading: (isLoading), items: (feedItems.count)"
    }

    var isLoading = true
    var feedItems: [FeedItem] = []

    init(data: Void) { }
}

State should not store any UI components but it should store all the data needed to unambiguously display the view i.e. for the same state your view should always looks the same.

Actions

Action is enum that lists all actions that can happen inside a module. For example:

enum FeedAction: AmberAction{
    case itemsLoaded([FeedItem])
    case like(Int)
}

action cases should contain any data needed to process them.

Reducer

Reducer is a class that is mainly responsible for processing Actions. It takes as input a current state and an action which is occurred and should return new state.

class FeedReducer: AmberReducer{
    /* other code */
    func reduce(action: FeedAction, state: FeedState,
                performTransition: @escaping (FeedTransition) -> Void,
                performAction: @escaping (FeedAction) -> Void,
                performOutputAction: @escaping (FeedOutputAction) -> Void) -> FeedState{
        var newState = state
        switch action {
        case .itemsLoaded(let items):
            newState.isLoading = false
            newState.feedItems = items
        case .like(let index):
            let item = newState.feedItems[index]
            item.isLiked = !item.isLiked
        }
        return newState
    }

    /* other code */}

Reduce function should be pure function. Reducer is not required to change state for every action, for any of them it can perform transitions:

        case .showUser(let user):
            if user.isCurrent { performTransition(.profile) }
            else { performTransition(.information(user)) } 

or perform other actions:

        case .reloadItems:
            itemsLoader.load(completion: { items in performAction(.itemsLoaded(items)) })

Transition

Transition is enum that lists all transition that can happen in current module. For example:

enum FeedTransition: AmberTransition{
    case profile
    case showPhoto(UIImage)
}

Transitions like actions should contain any data needed to process them

Router

Router is class that performs transitions and processes output actions from presented/embedded modules. For example:

class FeedRouter: AmberRouter{
    func perform(transition: FeedTransition,
                 route: AmberRoutePerformer,
                 reducer: FeedReducer,
                 performAction: @escaping (FeedAction) -> Void){
        switch transition {
        case .profile: _ = route.show(ProfileModule)
        case .showPhoto(let image): _ = route.show(FeedItemModule, data: image)
        }
    }
}

Store

Store is responsible for recieving actions and transitions, storing current state, router and reducer. Store is the only component that you should not override yourself – it is provided and implemented by Amber itself. You initialize store with Reducer and Router objects in your Controller as follows:

final class FeedController: UIViewController, AmberController {

    let store = AmberStore(reducer: FeedReducer(), router: FeedRouter())

Controller

Controller is the UIViewController subclass. It is responsible for binding state to UI and mapping user actions Actions/Transitions cases and sending them to store. For example:

//MARK: - Bindings
extension FeedController{
    func bind(){
        profileButton.reactive.tap
            .replace(with: .profile)
            .bind(to: transition)

        state.map { $0.isLoading }.bind(to: activityIndicator.reactive.isAnimating)
    }
}

There are two ways Controller can send Action events to Store:
1) bind any event (like button tap) to Store property action in a reactive way:

plusButton.reactive.tap
    .replace(with: .increaseAmount)
    .bind(to: action)

2) dispatch Action manually:

extension FeedController: UITableViewDelegate{
    func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, didSelectRowAt indexPath: IndexPath){
        store.perform(action: .like(indexPath.row))
    }
}    

The same is true about transitions:

extension FeedController{
    func bind(){
        profileButton.reactive.tap
            .replace(with: .profile)
            .bind(to: transition)
    }
}

extension FeedController: UITableViewDelegate{
    func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, didSelectRowAt indexPath: IndexPath){
        if let image = store.currentState().feedItems[indexPath.row].image{
            store.perform(transition: .showPhoto(image))
        }
    }
}

Controller should not store in self no other properties than UIView objects. All other properties should be places in State.
Most preferred way to work with state is to bind or subscribe to it. If you need to access it current value you can call store.currentState().

Middleware

Middleware is one of the coolest Amber’s feature. It can react to any Event (Action and Transition) before or after it happens. More important Middleware can intersect events and delay or even cancel them until some conditions are met. Example will follow bul lets start with a simple example – logging all events. All middleware implementations should conform to AmberMiddleware protocol:

public protocol AmberMiddleware{
    //Implement this function to process any event before it happens
    func process(state: Any, beforeEvent event: Any)

    //Implement this function to be able to delay or cancel any event before it will be directed to reducer
    func perform(event: Any, onState state: Any, route: AmberRoutePerformer, performBlock: @escaping () -> ())

    //Implement this function to process event or state after event was dispatched.
    func process(state: Any, afterEvent event: Any, route: AmberRoutePerformer)
}

All this three functions have default implementations so in your Middleware you can implement only necessary ones. Logging Middleware will look as follows:

class LoggingMiddleware: AmberMiddleware{
    func process(state: Any, afterEvent event: Any, route: AmberRoutePerformer){
        print("----------------------------------------")
        print("(type(of: event)).(event) -> (state)")
    }
}

You register it as follows:

@UIApplicationMain
class AppDelegate: UIResponder, UIApplicationDelegate {

    var window: UIWindow?

    func application(_ application: UIApplication, didFinishLaunchingWithOptions launchOptions: [UIApplicationLaunchOptionsKey: Any]?) -> Bool {
        Amber.main.registerSharedMiddleware(LoggingMiddleware())
        /* other code... */

After that all app events will be printed in the console:

----------------------------------------
FeedAction.itemsLoaded([Paris, Flying man, Old Car]) -> isLoading: false, items: 3
----------------------------------------
FeedTransition.profile -> isLoading: false, items: 3

Lets consider more complicated case: our app has some actions that needs user confirmation before they can be performed. We could solve it in a such way:

protocol ConfirmationRequirable{
    var needsConfirmation: Bool { get }
}

class ConfirmationMiddleware: AmberMiddleware{
    func perform(event: Any, route: AmberRoutePerformer, performBlock: @escaping () -> ()){
        //only if event that should occure is ConfirmationRequirable AND its needsConfirmation is true we proceed
        guard let crEvent = event as? ConfirmationRequirable, crEvent.needsConfirmation else{
            //otherwise we say that this action should be performed without any side affects
            //calling performBlock() invokes next Middleware to process this action or if it is the last registered Middleware, delivers this event to designated reducer/router
            performBlock()
            return
        }

        //we presents ConfirmationModule (popup)
        _ = route.present(ConfirmationModule) { a in
            //only if (and when) user confirmed this event we forwarding it
            if a == .confirmed { performBlock() }
        }
    }
}

After registering it Amber.main.registerSharedMiddleware(LoggingMiddleware(), ConfirmationMiddleware()) and conforming any Event to ConfirmationRequirable:

enum CartAction: AmberAction, ConfirmationRequirable{
    case clearCart, reload

    var needsConfirmation: Bool { return self == .clearCart }
}

From now on after Cart’s store will recieve .clearCart action, ConfirmationMiddleware will take over and present a popup. If user would press "Confirm" then the action will be delivered to CartReducer otherwise it won’t be dispatched. You can even implement ConfirmationRequirable protocol in transitions:

enum ProfileTransition: AmberAction, ConfirmationRequirable{
    case history, logout

    var needsConfirmation: Bool { return self == .logout }
}

Using middlewares helps you to write less code and reuse logic between all modules. Other common cases of middlewares are: AnalyticsMiddleware (send events to your favorite analytics), NotificationMiddleware (notifies user that some event was performed), ServerMiddleware (performs server request), ErrorProcessing, Authorization (presents authorization screen for unauthorized users) and so on.

App’s first screen

You should set app’s first screen in your AppDelegate:

class AppDelegate: UIResponder, UIApplicationDelegate {
    var window: UIWindow?

    func application(_ application: UIApplication, didFinishLaunchingWithOptions launchOptions: [UIApplicationLaunchOptionsKey: Any]?) -> Bool {
        window = UIWindow(frame: UIScreen.main.bounds)
        Amber.setInitial(module: FeedModule, window: window)

and set to empty "Main Interface" field in your project settings (otherwise it will override your Amber.setInitial code).

Of course you can set different initial screens based on any conditions:

class AppDelegate: UIResponder, UIApplicationDelegate {
    var window: UIWindow?

    func application(_ application: UIApplication, didFinishLaunchingWithOptions launchOptions: [UIApplicationLaunchOptionsKey: Any]?) -> Bool {
        window = UIWindow(frame: UIScreen.main.bounds)
        if User.current.isAuthorized{
            Amber.setInitial(module: FeedModule, window: window)
        }else{
            Amber.setInitial(module: AuthorizationModule, window: window)
        }

Transitions & module communications

Types

All transitions and embeddings should be performed in routers. Inside your router’s perform function you recieve route object which implements different ways of presenting/dismissing another modules.
You have three ways to present another module:

  • replace: replaces UIApplication.shared.keyWindow?.rootViewController with given module;
  • present: presents new module;
  • show: if current module contains navigationController, then pushes new module; otherwise presents it.

And four ways to exit from current screen:

  • dismiss: dismisses current module;
  • pop: pops to previous module in navigation controller;
  • popToRoot: pops to first module in navigation controller’s stack;
  • close: if module is embedded then unembeds it; if module is in navigationController, then pops; othervise dismisses it.

For example:

class FeedRouter: AmberRouter{
    func perform(transition: FeedTransition,
                 route: AmberRoutePerformer,
                 reducer: FeedReducer,
                 performAction: @escaping (FeedAction) -> Void){
        switch transition {
        case .profile: _ = route.present(ProfileModule)
        case .showPhoto: _ = route.show(FeedItemModule)
        case .dismiss: route.close()
        }
    }
}

Initial data

In Amber each module specifies directly what data is required for them to be presented. Other modules are forced to pass that data to them in order to present them. By default modules do not require any data:

struct ProfileState: AmberState {
    var description: String { return "ProfileState" }

    init(data: Void) { }
}

If module needs any data to be presented then you should replace Void in State’s init with that data type:

struct ProfileState: AmberState {
    var description: String { return "ProfileState" }    
    let id: Int

    init(data: Int) { self.id = data }
}

After that other modules would be able to show Profile module only with requred data:

case .profile(let id): _ = route.present(ProfileModule, data: id)

The same is true for other types of presentation: show and replace.

Embedding

Embedding is a special case of module presenting. What makes it different from any other presententations that it needs UIView object in which given module will be embedded:

class FeedItemRouter: AmberRouter{
     func perform(transition: FeedItemTransition,
                  route: AmberRoutePerformer,
                  reducer: FeedItemReducer,
                  performAction: @escaping (FeedItemAction) -> Void){
        switch transition {
        case .embedFilters(let view): _ = route.embed(FilterModule, inView: view)
        }
    }
}

Communications between modules

Regardless of how another module was presented or even embedded, the communications between them are always working the same way. Lets call presenting module Presenter and presented module Presented. Presentedis responsible for describing all the events it can produce (PresentedOutputEvents) and the events it can recieve (PresentedInputEvents). Presenter decides whether it be listening for PresentedOutputEvents and can pass PresentedInputEvents to Presented. It works as followings:
In Presenter‘s Reducer we declare Presented‘s PresentedInputEvents action block:

class FeedItemReducer: AmberReducer{    
    var filterInput: FilterReducer.InputActionListener? //It is equal to ((FilterInputAction) -> Void)?

It is a function that we can perform to pass PresentedInputEvents to Presented. This function is returned to us by route object when we presenting/embedding another module:

        case .embedFilters(let view): 
            //this is how we pass this function to Reducer
            reducer.filterInput = route.embed(FilterModule, inView: view)
        }

If we are interested in PresentedOutputEvents we can pass output listener block as extra argument:

        case .embedFilters(let view):
            reducer.filterInput = route.embed(FilterModule, inView: view) { outputEvent in
                switch outputEvent{
                case .updateImage(let image): performAction(.setImage(image))
                }
            }
        }

We process PresentedInputEvents inside Presented‘s Reducer reduceInput function:

class FilterReducer: AmberReducer{
    /* other code */    func reduceInput(action: FilterInputAction, state: FilterState,
                     performAction: @escaping (FilterAction) -> Void,
                     performOutputAction: @escaping (FilterOutputAction) -> Void) -> FilterState{
        var newState = state
        switch action {
        case .reset:
            newState.saturation = 1
            newState.brightness = 0
            newState.contrast = 1
        }
        return newState
    }

And we can send PresentedOutputEvents actions from three places:

  • inside Reducer from reduce function via calling performOutputAction(<OutputAction>);
  • inside Reducer from reduceInput function via calling performOutputAction(<OutputAction>);
  • inside Controller by calling store.performOutput(action: <OutputAction>) or by binding to outputAction dynamic property.

Amber module for generamba

Amber has its own module for
Generamba – so you won’t write all this code by yourself.

Example

You can check out simple example of Amber usage: TestProject

Installation

Amber is available through CocoaPods. To install
it, simply add the following line to your Podfile:

pod 'Amber'

Author

Nikita Arkhipov, [email protected]
Anvics

License

Amber is available under the MIT license. See the LICENSE file for more info.

Latest podspec

{
    "name": "Amber",
    "version": "2.0.1",
    "summary": "flexible and convenient iOS architecture based on Flex & Elm",
    "description": "Amber is flexible and convenient iOS architecture based on Flex & Elm.nIt uses Reducer to process Actions and Router to process Transitions.",
    "homepage": "https://github.com/Anvics/Amber",
    "license": {
        "type": "MIT",
        "file": "LICENSE"
    },
    "authors": {
        "Nikita Arkhipov": "[email protected]"
    },
    "source": {
        "git": "https://github.com/Anvics/Amber.git",
        "tag": "2.0.1"
    },
    "platforms": {
        "ios": "9.0"
    },
    "source_files": "Amber/Classes/**/*",
    "frameworks": "UIKit",
    "dependencies": {
        "Bond": [
            "~> 6.5.0"
        ]
    }
}

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